0. When in doubt, ask for help.

Security is hard and it is easy to make a mistake. If you find yourself in the slightest doubt about a security topic, ask for assistance or a second opinion.

1. Code-review all security-related code.

All security-related code should be reviewed. This means that such code should be written to be easy to audit.

In other words, it is not enough for the code to be secure. It should also be easy to see that it is in fact secure.

2. Avoid DIY security.

When it comes to security, do-it-yourself is rarely a good idea, since it is very hard to verify that your solution actually delivers. It's better to go with battle-tested third-party solutions.

3. Choose third-party software wisely.

Third-party software brings the risk of security vulnerabilities. Keep this in mind when choosing third-party software, and choose solutions that are well-regarded by security experts. If you are not sure whether a piece of software is secure, ask someone who does.

4. Keep third-party software up to date.

Established solutions only offer more security if you keep up with security fixes. For this reason, keep third-party software up to date.

You can use tools such as "retire.js" to check for vulnerable NPM packages. Consider adding this check to your CI setup.

5. Ensure authentication and authorization.

Most apps require a method for establishing who the user is (authentication) and what they are allowed to do (authorization). You need to ensure that those methods actually work and cannot be circumvented.

6. Do not trust the client.

Anything that is stored in the browser's memory can be accessed by the user. Proceed with this assumption.

When you send JavaScript to a browser, you have no way of knowing if the browser will run this code unmodified. So, any security that you implement client-side can be easily circumvented. Do not send to the browser any data the user should not see. Do not accept from a browser any requests that the user should not be able to make.

7. Practice "courtesy security" client-side.

Client-side security is "courtesy security". It's not there to stop the user from misbehaving – that should be done by the server. The client's role is to guide the user towards choices that won't lead to a disappointingly rude response from the server.

E.g., disable the button that the user shouldn't click. They can still go into the console and use it to ask the server to do something they are not allowed to do. But at that point, a 400-level response is fair game. A well-behaved user, however, should be guided away from prohibited actions.

Client-side "courtesy security" frees your server from the need to be polite and simplifies your architecture.

8. Secure data in transit.

Data should be encrypted when traveling along channels where someone could intercept it. There are good, standard solutions for that.

9. Secure data at rest.

Data should be secure while it is being stored.

10. Secure the keys.

If you encrypt the data, it is only secure as long as the keys are secure. Consider how keys are being managed in your system.

11. Protect data from yourself.

In many cases, users' data needs to be protected not only from outsiders or other users, but also from our own and client's staff. Among other things, this usually means that you need to set things up in such a way that you wouldn't have access to that data either.

12. Plan to deploy to the cloud.

Leveraging cloud infrastructure makes it easier to ensure security compared to running your own servers. Our preferred cloud provider is Amazon AWS.

Note that we love Heroku for development, but prefer Amazon AWS for production deployment because of the wider set of security options. This means that when developing with Heroku it is important to avoid making too many commitments to it.